1 Tekenen begint bij kijken

In deze eerste les komen de volgende onderwerpen aan de orde

  • Kijken
  • Het zoeken naar de vorm
  • Toonwaarden

Kijken

Het allerbelangrijkste bij tekenen is het kijken. En hierbij kunnen je hersenen je danig in de weg zitten. We hebben beelden in ons hoofd, schema’s van hoe de wereld eruit ziet. Een boom heeft een stam en een kroon. Een gezicht heeft twee ogen, twee oren een neus en een mond. En van nature hebben we de neiging om die schematische weergave van de wereld op het papier te zetten. Wanneer je dit kan loslaten en tekent wat je werkelijk ziet, dan heb je al een grote stap gezet.

Dat onze hersenen zo werken heeft tegelijkertijd ook weer een voordelige kant. De kijker heeft namelijk dezelfde schematische beelden in zijn hoofd en heeft maar weinig nodig om te weten wat het is wat jij hebt gemaakt. Extrapoleren noem je dat. Je hersenen vullen het beeld aan. Daarom hoef je niet alles precies uit te tekenen, vaak wordt het dan juist saai.

Dit zelfportret van Rembrandt laat maar weinig van zijn gezicht zien, het grootste deel ligt in donkere schaduw.

Ik herinner me dat ik een keer een kopje moest schilderen in tegenlicht. Het was een wit kopje, maar in het tegenlicht was het donker. Ik vond het echt moeilijk om een wit kopje zo donker te schilderen! De docent kwam langs: je durft het niet, zei ze lachend. Je moet soms over een drempel heen om je idee van de werkelijkheid los te laten en te schilderen wat je ziet.

Het zoeken naar de vorm.

Laten we beginnen met het tekenen van een eenvoudig voorwerp. Kies iets dat je echt mooi vind, want je gaat er lang naar kijken. Zorg dat je tekent op goed tekenpapier, begin niet op een printpapier, maar kies voor tekenpapier met een beetje structuur.  En gebruik potloden 2b, 3b en 4b.

Maak voordat je begint een paar kleine schetsen om te bepalen welke compositie het meest interessant is. Op het onderwerp compositie komen we later nog uitgebreid terug. Vooralsnog volstaat het om hier even bewust aandacht aan de geven. Hou in gedachten dat als je het onderwerp precies in het midden zet, het beeld rustig is, maar dat het ook makkelijk saai kan worden.  Als je een interessante opstelling hebt van je voorwerp(en), kies dan je eigen standpunt en realiseer je dat als je ook maar een beetje anders gaat zitten, je er dan heel anders tegenaan kijkt! 

Probeer te ontdekken wat de grondvorm is van je onderwerp en begin met het tekenen van die vereenvoudigde vorm.  Gebruik je potlood om te meten hoe de verhoudingen zijn. Hou hierbij het potlood op armlengte voor je en meet zo de afstanden. Het is belangrijk om je potlood op armlengte te houden, anders meet je steeds verschillend. Vraag jezelf af welke lijnen langer zijn dan andere. Welk punt is hoger, welk punt is lager. Sommige lijnen zijn verticaal, sommige horizontaal, anderen hebben een hoek. Vergelijk de hoeken met elkaar.  Zet je tekening voorzichtig op, druk niet te hard met je potlood, maar hou de lijnen zacht, zodat je nog makkelijk kan veranderen.

De restvormen worden gevormd door de ruimte om je voorwerp heen. Vaak helpt het om daar ook goed naar te kijken.

Hier is de restvorm een vaas of de restvorm is een gezicht. Het is maar hoe je er naar kijkt.

Neem steeds even afstand en kijk of het klopt.

Gebruik het hele vlak. Dus begin niet bij een bepaald onderdeel en werk dat uit, maar zet het eerst groot op en ga later door naar de details.  Als je een kopje gekozen hebt omdat je verliefd bent op het oortje ervan, waak er dan voor om je te storten op alle details van het oortje en het kopje te vergeten.

Toonwaarden

Wanneer je door je wimpers kijkt zie je beter de verschillende toonwaarden. De toonwaarde zegt iets over hoe licht of donker een kleur is.

Zoek in eerst instantie naar de 3 toonwaarden: donker, midden en licht. Laat je niet verleiden tot het tekenen van de details, maar probeer eerst de juiste verhoudingen te krijgen van licht en donker.

 

In de tekening van Peter Durieux kun je mooi de verschillende toonwaarden herkennen. Er zijn heel veel nuances, maar als je door je wimpers kijkt zie je licht, midden en donker. Probeer op die manier naar je onderwerp te kijken. In het werk van Andrew Wyeth kun je zien hoe sterk contrasten werken. Het werk wordt interessant als je duidelijk kiest wat je donker maakt en wat licht moet blijven. De tekening van Whistler laat zien dat weinig contrast juist een heel mystieke sfeer geeft.  Kijk wat past bij jouw onderwerp en wat voor sfeer jij erin ziet.

Het is niet belangrijk dat het een mooie tekening wordt. Je kunt je fouten ook gewoon laten staan. Het is een oefening in kijken. Probeer geconcentreerd en aandachtig te werken. Als het je helemaal niet aanstaat kun je rustig opnieuw beginnen, maar geef niet te snel op. Hoe langer je kijkt, hoe meer je ziet! Het belangrijkste is dat je plezier hebt in het maken.

Blijf steeds het geheel zien, zoek de 3 toonwaarden, doe de details pas als je weet dat de vorm klopt. Veel plezier! Volgende maand een nieuwe les.

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